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网站设计中字体及浏览器兼容性

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02月05日
2015年

目前,文字信息仍是网站最主要的内容,随着CSS3技术的不断成熟,Web字体逐渐成为话题,这项让未来Web更加丰富多彩的技术拥有多种实现方案,其中之一是通过@font-face属性在网页中嵌入自定义字体,主流的浏览器都支持这项技术。

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Web字体格式介绍

 

TrueType (.ttf)

Windows和Mac系统最常用的字体格式,其最大的特点就是它是由一种数学模式来进行定义的基于轮廓技术的字体,这使得它们比基于矢量的字体更容易处理,保证了屏幕与打印输出的一致性。同时,这类字体和矢量字体一样可以随意缩放、旋转而不必担心会出现锯齿。

 

EOT – Embedded Open Type (.eot)

嵌入字体格式(EOT)是微软开发的一种技术,允许 OpenType 字体嵌入到网页并可以下载至浏览器渲染,浏览器根据 CSS 中 @font-face 的定义,下载,渲染这种 .EOT 后缀的字体文件。这些文件只在当前页活动的状态下,临时安装在用户的系统中。

 

OpenType (.otf)

OpenType是一种可缩放字型(scalable font)电脑字体类型,采用PostScript格式,是美国微软公司与Adobe公司联合开发,用来替代TrueType字型的新字型。这类字体的文件扩展名为.otf,类型代码是OTTO,现行标准为OpenType 1.4。OpenType最初发表于1996年,并在2000年之后出现大量字体。它源于微软公司的TrueType Open字型,TrueType Open字型又源于TrueType字型。OpenType font包括了Adobe CID-Keyed font技术。Adobe公司已经在2002年末将其字体库全部改用OpenType格式。

 

WOFF – Web Open Font Format (.woff)

相对于 TrueType 和 OpenType ,WOFF(Web开发字体格式)是一种专门为了 Web 而设计的字体格式标准,它并不复杂,实际上只是对于 TrueType / OpenType 等字体格式的封装,并针对网络使用加以优化:每个字体文件中含有字体以及针对字体的元数据(Metadata),字体文件被压缩,以便于网络传输,并且不包含任何加密或者 DRM 措施。包括 Adobe、 Lino Type、Monotype 在内的几乎所有主要的字体供应商都加入到支持 WOFF 的行列中来

 

SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics) Fonts (.svg)

顾名思义,就是使用SVG技术来呈现字体,还有一种gzip压缩格式的SVG字体.svgz。SVG可缩放矢量图形(Scalable Vector Graphics)是基于可扩展标记语言(XML),用于描述二维矢量图形的一种图形格式。SVG由W3C制定,是一个开放标准。SVG严格遵从XML语法,并用文本格式的描述性语言来描述图像内容,因此是一种和图像分辨率无关的矢量图形格式。SVG可以使你设计的网页可以更加精彩细致,使用简单的文本命令,SVG可实现色彩线性变化、路径、自定义字体、透明效果、滤镜效果等各式常见的图形图像效果。

 

 

浏览器兼容性一览

使用CSS3的@font-face属性可以实现在网页中嵌入任意字体,但是IE只支持微软自有的EOT格式字体,而其他浏览器都不支持这一字体格式,其它浏览器可以设置TTF(TrueType)和OTF(OpenType)两种字体作为自定义字体,浏览器对@font-face属性及各种字体格式支持详的细情况如下:

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